Introduction to fig fruit
is one of the important economic products in Iran and in many other countries.
horticultural crop has been cultivated over 380,000 hectares worldwide. About
one million tons of figs are produced each year. The most important figs found
in international markets are Iranian and Turkish varieties, such as Estahban
black cadutas, and semi-moist Izmir figs, which due to the high quality of the
fruit, it has high nutritional and economic value.
Iran, various fig varieties in many provinces of the country have been
cultivated at an area of about fifty thousand hectares, producing nearly
80,000 tons of productive orchards. Among different varieties of figs in Iran,
dried figs (green figure of Estahban), onion figs of Saveh, black figs
(Lorestan black). One of the major challenges in the fig gardens of the country
is the existence of old, poorly functioning and poorly functioning gardens.
History of Fig
The fig tree is very old and has long been considered and has been
mentioned in old testament works and books. Figs are said to have been
cultivated in Egypt around 4,000 BC. There is evidence that figs were
cultivated in Canaan in 3000 BC. In the Bible, the fig tree is mentioned as one
of the fruits of the Garden of Paradise. One of the holy foods at the Jewish
Passover was fig fruit. Figs in Greece have also been valuable for medicinal
and edible purposes as a food source for winter
Constructing a fig garden: Location of the garden
Understanding the status of the area where the fig garden is being
built is essential for the following:
Temperature: Fig is a subtropical fall tree that prefers mild
winters and hot summers. High summer temperatures limit fig cultivation (Temperatures
above 42 degrees Celsius affect the fruit and reduce crop quality). Figs are
susceptible to cold in their youth. Young trees are damaged in the cold of -3
degrees Celsius in December and January and die at temperature below -9 degrees
Celsius. The tree trunk withstands temperatures of -10 degrees Celsius and has
the ability to grow again after injury.
Soil: Fig trees grow on a wide range of sandy clay soils with pH =
Precipitation: Precipitation is ideal for cultivation of figs from
300 to 400 mm/year, and the idea state is to have appropriate distribution from
December to May. Precipitation during pollination season (June, July) and
harvest time is a harmful factor.
Humidity: Constructing figs garden should be avoided in areas with relative
humidity above 40% and relative humidity in summer should be less than 35%.
Increasing relative humidity at flowering and anthesis reduces pollination
efficiency and consequently as a result, it reduces fruit formation and causes
fungal diseases at the time of fruit ripening, including increased product
contamination with aflatoxin.
status of fig over the past five years 2014-2018
Export value ( $1000)
Statistics of surface under fertile cultivation, production and
global performance of fig fruit in 2016
of production (Ton)
Major producers of fig in the world in 2016